Tourism is now recognized as the driver of the economic growth. It’s also reckoned as the best tool to promote sustainable development and address the inclusive growth concerns.
Tourism has the potential to stimulate other economic factors through its linkages with a host of sectors like agriculture; manufacturing etc .Another unique aspect of the tourism sector is that it provides employment even to the unskilled and semi skilled manpower. The Travel and Tourism industry is moving forward on a very positive note. There are plenty of opportunities in India for it to be sold as a destination, bestowed with incredible travel offerings that have plenty to satisfy the needs of all segments of travelers.
According to the United Nations World Tourism Organisations (UNWTO), one billion tourists have travelled internationally in 2012.This is equal to one in every seven people on the planet travelling the world in 2012 ,up from just 25 million in 1950
India is believed to be one of the top most tourism spot from 2009-2018, having the highest ten year growth potential, according to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC).
The country’s travel and tourism industry is one of the most profitable industries in the country, and is credited with contributing a substantial amount of foreign exchange. Indian tourism offers a potpourri of different cultures, traditions, festivals, and places of interest.
India was ranked fifth in the world for hotels with the best business outlook, according to a report by TripAdvisor. The country showed optimism with the highest proportion of businesses in Asia-Pacific (APAC) region. It displayed unbridled optimism with the highest proportion of businesses in APAC that expect the economy to improve in the second half of 2012. India was also ranked highest globally, among all countries surveyed for staff turnover, based on increased staff levels.
Moreover, India has also emerged as one of the world’s most cost-efficient medical tourism destinations. Medical tourism in the country is a sunrise sector valued at more than US$ 310 million. Currently, India receives more than 100,000 foreign patients a year. It is expected that the Indian medical tourism market will register a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 27 per cent during 2011-15, according to a RNCOS report titled ‘Booming Medical Tourism in India’.
Hotels are an important component of the tourism product. They contribute in the overall tourism experience through the standards of facilities and services offered by them.
Foreign Exchange Earnings (FEEs) from Tourism during the year 2012 showed an increase of 21.8% as compared to FEEs of 2011. Foreign Tourist Arrivals (FTAs) in the country also registered an increase of 5.4% during the year 2012 as compared to FTAs of 2011.
FTAs in India during 2012 were 66.48 lakh with a growth of 5.4% as compared to the FTAs of 63.09 lakh during the year 2011. FEEs from tourism in rupee terms during 2012 were Rs.94, 487 crore with a growth of 21.8% as compared to the FEEs of Rs.77, 591 crore with a growth of 19.6% during the year 2011 over 2010. (As per Ministry of Tourism, India Report 2012)
The Ministry of Tourism, Government of India, endeavors to position India as a preferred tourism destination to promote various Indian tourism products vis-à-vis competition faced from various destinations and to increase India’s share of the global tourism market.
The coming year 2013 looks positive:-
The year 2013 looks optimistic for the travel industry. This is primarily because of various economic reforms introduced in the second half of the year 2012.Intitiatives like FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) in retail and aviation are likely to boost the Indian economy growth thereby increasing discretionary spending on services like travel.
There is a tremendous scope for expansion and evolution in the market. The incoming foreign tourist arrivals in India registered a growth of 5.9 percent and this is primarily due to a collective bag of positive forces. The government has recently eased restrictions on tourist’s visas which had earlier mandated a two month gap between consecutive visits by foreign nationals. So the coming year looks positive for tourism industry.
The ever growing importance of tourism sector internationally is reflected in the fact that in about 150 countries of the world, tourism is one of the five top export earners. It is the number one export earner in 60 countries. Tourism plays a key role in socio –economic progress through creation of jobs, enterprise, infrastructure and revenue earnings. The Planning Commission has identified tourism as the second largest sector in the country in providing employment opportunities for low skilled and semi –skilled workers. Women make up nearly 70 percent of the labour force and nearly 50 percent of tourism manpower comprises of persons who are 25 years or less in age.
Tourism plays an important role in economic development and creation of jobs in India. The planning commission estimates inform that 78 jobs per million rupees of investment are created by tourism sector. Based on the Tourism Satellite Accounts of India the contribution (direct and indirect) of tourism in GDP is 9 percent in the year 2012.
In 2013 there will be increased emphasis on skill development and capacity building for bridging the huge gap in demand and supply in skilled manpower in the hospitality sector. According to UN World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), the contribution of tourism to worldwide GDP is estimated to be in the region of 5%. For diversified economies, the contribution of tourism to national GDP ranges from 2 % for countries where tourism is comparatively a small sector, to over 10 % for countries where tourism is a main driver of the national economy. Tourism’s contribution to employment is estimated to be 6 – 7 % of the overall number of jobs worldwide (direct and indirect).
Tourism is one of the largest sectors of the service industry In India. It is capable of providing employment to a wide spectrum of job seekers from the unskilled to the specialized, even in the remote parts of the country. Compared to other modern sectors, a higher proportion of tourism benefits (jobs, petty trade opportunities) accrue to women. Hence, growth of the tourism sector is more inclusive than other sectors.
Manpower Requirement in Tourism Sector:-
As per the study commissioned by Ministry of Tourism, the total employment in Hospitality Sector (Hotels- classified and unclassified, eating outlets, Tour Operators, Travel Agents and Medical & Wellness units) in selected years -are estimated to be as follows:
Year Employment (Lakhs)
Report of the working group on tourism for 12th five year plan
Travel and tourism is one of the fastest growing sectors of the Indian economy. Recognized by both local and central governments as a major employer and contributor to the wealth and economic stability of the country, the travel and tourism industry offers a wide range of career opportunities. The opportunities arise in the commercial sector (tour operators, hotels, theme parks, airlines etc) the public sector (national governments and agencies, local government regulatory bodies. The range of levels at which travel and tourism employment can be found is vast. This range extends from ‘front –line ‘staff (reception, travel agency consultants, and call center operatives, Food and beverage staff.) The most important qualities are communication, teamwork and customer service skills. Whatever the location, position or technical skills, to make it in travel and tourism one needs to enjoy challenges and have the ability to work well with people.
Travel and tourism students must have the following skills:-
• Problem-solving skills
• IT skills
• Good communication and listening skills
• Presentation skills
• Teamwork(the ability to work in a team)
• Ability to work to deadline
• Good general knowledge
• Good selling skills
• An outgoing personality
• The ability to create a rapport with people of different ages and different cultures
• Strong attention to detail, because a little mistake could mean a major disaster.
• A strong customer service ethic and a desire to help people
• Good organisational skills
Job opportunities in Tourism Industry:-
Profile:-Travel Agent-Provide travel arrangements, giving advice on travel matters. Marketing holidays and travel packages
Profile: – Tour Guide- The role of guides in the tourism system distinguishes itself by its potential to manage the tourist experiences, enhance destination image and implement the goals of responsible tourism.
Profile:-Holiday Representative- Looks after holidaymakers at resorts.organises excursions and entertainment
Profile:-Tourism Information Centre Manager-Provides information to tourists about local attractions, events, and accommodation. Deals with enquiries face to face, by phone, and post profile
Profile: – Ticketing executive- Attend to travel enquiries and recommend appropriate flight routings and itineraries. Ensure timely processing of travel documents, including quotations, ticket issuance.
Profile:-Tour Operation Manager-Handle of daily documents, liaising with coach operators, airlines, hoteliers and resort. Handle customers’ enquiries on Travel arrangement.
Profile: – Tour Consultant- Attend to walk-in, phone, fax and email travel enquiries by clients professionally. Propose appropriate travel products and services in accordance to client’s requirement.
Future Trends in Travel and Tourism Industry: –
2013 is more about developing instant, personalized & bookable services. For destinations and tourism companies, what matters is offering customized and relevant information by gaining access to large amounts of data from multiple sources.
Consumer technology is changing traveler behavior and expectations. Organizations and companies try to keep up with the latest advancements focusing on cost optimization and performance enhancement while they also need to increase their focus on how technology can better meet their travelers’ needs.
The global travel industry is experiencing a continuing upward trend due mainly to an economic boom in Brazil, Russia, India, and China and in other developing countries. More and more organizations worldwide are adapting their business models to take advantage of opportunities in emerging markets.2013 is expected to be another good year for the all inclusive and luxury sectors. With continued economic uncertainty and low consumer confidence, families are expected to continue to put faith in the destinations they know best. Spain, Greece, Italy, USA, France, Cyprus and Turkey are expected to continue to be the most popular destinations for holiday makers in 2013.While demand for city breaks and beach holidays is expected to hold steady, there is an increase in demand for more independent tours and differentiated holidays that include niche tourism.
Key Trends in Tourism:-
Tailor Made Experiences:-
While tailor made tours used to be just for the luxury end of the market there are now many tour operators offering more affordable options due to the growth in popularity of this kind of holiday.
The rise of multi centre holidays where holiday makers may combine two or more destinations in their trip are also growing in popularity and fuelling the trend for tailor made holidays.
In search of Adventure:-
Tourists are expected to take an adventure or challenge holiday in 2013.Wheather its hot air ballooning in Turkey or White water rafting in Rishikesh(India) tour operators are offering more options to cater for holidaymakers ‘growing sense of adventure.
Luxury-return of the big holiday:-
The luxury market has performed remarkably well in recent years. 2013 is expected to be a particularly good year for luxury tour operators with some tour operators predicting that those who have held back on a big, long haul holiday in recent years will take that trip in 2013
Train, Coach and Cruise:-
It’s expected that in 2012 more UK passengers than even before will have taken an ocean cruise holiday, with the figure rising to 1.72 million -20,000 passengers more than 2011.There is a slight increase in demand for train and coach holidays, with 9% of consumers saying they plan to take a coach holidays in 2013, compared to 8%who took one in 2012 and 9%planning a train holiday compared to 6%who took one in 2012
2013 will be a historic year for space tourism with the first consumer flight into space being launched by Virgin Galactic. It is certainly a landmark event in travel a industry.
Independent travel:-A new trend among young
These days, younger and more adventurous are taking off more time to travel and most of the time; they do it with friends of their own age, or even on their own. Every day, more and more young people are taking time to travel with their friends.
Global market trends indicate that long-haul travel, neighboring country tourism, rural and ethnic tourism, wellness and health holidays, cultural tourism, spiritualism, ecotourism, sports and adventure holidays, and coastal tourism and cruises are a few emerging areas of tourist interest. From a geographic viewpoint, there has been a remarkable rise in Asian tourists, particularly from China and East Asian countries. Further, the average age of the international tourist has also been reducing representing a growing segment of young tourists who would typically travel to take a break from increasingly stressful professional lives. In India trends of people travelling more frequently became more pronounced. Category of travelers has been widened with travelers travelling with friends, family, in groups, etc. Travelers in Indian nowadays cut down their number of travelling days, opting for short haul destinations and selecting domestic itineraries.
Further, world tourist arrivals in Asia are likely to grow faster than arrivals in Europe and the Asian market share of world tourism would steadily increase until 2020.The shifts in key trends thus represent greater opportunities for developing economies (since tourism brings with it key benefits of boosting foreign exchange while creating jobs). It also creates avenues to develop niche areas such as coastal tourism, medical tourism and rural tourism to enhance the tourist value of destinations.
The travel and tourism sector creates more jobs per million rupees of investment than any other sector of the economy and is capable of providing employment to a wide spectrum of job seekers from the unskilled to the specialized, even in the remote parts of the country. Tourism Sector is a major generator of employment. As a highly labour intensive activity, tourism and tourism support activities create a high proportion of employment and career opportunities for low skilled and semi-skilled workers, particularly for poor, female and young workers. Women make up 70% of the labour force in tourism sector and half of all tourism workers are 25 years or under. The tourism sector can be an important source of employment for many of the unemployed youth and consequently reduces the poverty in the society. As observed, tourism trends around the world are likely to remain robust and the growth of the T&T industry worldwide will significantly impact tourism flows towards the subcontinent.