Background of the Research.
The role of the teacher is changing when one prefers counseling rather than teaching and also in facilitating rather than counseling. In conventional education set up , teachers teach whereas in distance education set up they counsel. But the learners from this set up are expected to read the content before attending the counseling sessions and most of the time it was found that they attended the sessions without any preparation and expected more and more from the counselors. If the students have no doubts , counselors will not success in counseling. It requires to make the learners learn and construct the knowledge. Therefore facilitating replaces the counseling where all the learners involve and gain constructive knowledge.
The best teacher is he who teaches his students how to learn. It requires him to choose the best Learning method. Lecture method and many other methods are teacher centered and give emphasize on teaching rather than learning. Co-Operative learning method may be considered student centered method where students seek co-operation from each other for their learning. Co-operative learning teaching method gives the idea for the students how to seek co-operation from each other. Teacher may suggest the use of phone, mobile, email etc. for seeking co-operation. There is something lacking and needs to get it with the help of others. Moreover there may not be a gain to everyone as is found in Collaborative Learning Method. (CLM)
CLM is a student centered method where everyone in the class play their role as defined and learn collaboratively gaining for each one. This method is completely new one that is used to teach in the classroom especially in a face to face situation and for higher classes. But whether this method is useful in facilitating the learners in distance mode is needed to find out.
CLM : A Concept.
Way of doing something is called a method. It is a system and it has orderliness. ‘CLM‘ is the teaching and counseling method where the teacher or counselor plans the constructive learning designs for the students and where the students play their role to implement the plan accordingly. Students play their role as if they are in partnership. The gain what they achieve is the gain for all. All are benefited from this method.
It is different from the collaborative project-based learning as used by Kramer,Barry,Walker, Andrew, Brill Jennifer ( Oct. 2007 ) while reviewing the under utilization of information and communication technology assisted collaborative project- based learning among international educators : a Delphi study. The study explores the barriers associated with teachers implementing information and communication- technology- assisted collaborative project-based learning (ICT PBL ) as a classroom teaching method. But Collaborative Learning ( CSCL ) is not the study based on any project or on ICT.
The study of Prinsen F.R.; Volman, M.L.L./ Terwel, J. (2007 ) was not also fall in Collaborative Classroom Teaching Method that is under study as they used computer-supported collaborative learning ( CSCL ) to find out gender-related differences.
While reviewing the project fun work Havice, Michael J. Malin Shelly Schweizer, Heidi, Frenn, Marilyn ( Jul/Aug. 2007 ) mentioned that students from three disciplines designed, developed and implemented exercise and nutrition interventions online modules and videos to benefit low income middle school students engaged through collaboration. But Collaborative Learning classroom Teaching method is different from this research.
Carron, Thibault, Mart Jean-Charles, Herand, Jean-Mathias, ( Sept. 2008 ) propose a learning environment based on a graphical representation of a course while teaching with game based learning management systems. But it is different than Collaborative Learning Classroom Teaching Method.
Eric Zhi- Feng Liu, ( Nov. 2007 ) attempts to utilize a network to establish a personal and group-based learning portfolia system characterized by co-operative learning which is also different from collaborative learning class-room Teaching method.
Taylor, Maurice, Abasi, Ali, Pinsent-Johnson, Christine, Evans, Karen investigated how Canadian Adult students collaborative learn with peers in both formal and non.-formal adult literacy programs. But it was not the Classroom Teaching method.
Louisa Remedios, David Clarke , Lesleyanne Hawthorue (2008) had made the conclusion that students choice to be silent doesn’t mean that lack of learning on his part.
J. Feller, A. Hirvensalo, R. Smeds ( June 2005 ) in Inter partner process learning in collaborative R & D had studied how and what partner companies in an R & D collaboration relationship can jointly learn, to improve their R & D processes. But it was not the classroom teaching method.
Pater F. Cuthbert ( April 2005) had studied the student learning processes. Learning styles/ learning approaches and concluded that investigation of students’ Learning Styles/ Approaches to Learning are probably of more benefit to the teacher than to the individual student. But collaborative learning classroom teaching method is the more benefited to the students.
Brenda Scott.Ladd, Christopher C.A. ( 2008 ) investigated the contribution of behavior of a student for team-building teaching for managing the conflict and team relations. They made action research to teach students to manage team learning and improve team work satisfaction. Therefore this was not like the CLCTM as discussed below.
Characteristics of CLM.
1. Teacher creates situation for learning . He designs a plan of a teaching.
2. Students learn in a group .
3. Tasks are performed in a group by the Students as the instructions are given by the teacher.
4.The provision is made to exhibit the information collected by one group to other groups.
5.By this method , the studentsare motivated to raise the queries , if any, and are clarified immediately.
6.This teaching method is learner centered method.
7.Students learn the content with collaboration.
8.Students work as if they are in partnership.
9.Teachers role is to assist the students to solve the difficulties, clarify the doubts and make the explanations wherever necessary.
10.It is a method of working together to achieve learning tasks collectively.
11.Student learn themselves.
- Students receive gain out of this teaching.
- The gain they achieve is the gain for all.
- Teacher speaks very less in the class.
- Importance is given ‘learning’ instead of ‘teaching’.
Procedure of CLM:
Role of the teachers:
The teacher has to prepare himself well verse of the content going to be taught in the class. Therefore, he needs to do the following,
1.Read the content.
2.Analyse the content.
3.Classify the content into four to five and name the classification..
4. Then he is required to make sub classifications of each classification into four to five and name the sub classifications.
5.Then he is expected to form 10 to 15 questions on each sub classification. These questions are of 3 marks or of 5 marks.
6.Then he is expected to write answer keys to each question.
7.He is also expected to frame long form questions that of ten marks, of fifteen marks, and of twenty marks. These questions are the combination of already framed short type questions.
8.He is expected to write answer keys to each long-form of question or combination of answer of short answer questions.
9.He is also expected to draw a new concepts to the students and prepare to explain them by using various methods like demonstration / explanation and so on.
10 He is to decide whether to use overhead projector or to use power point presentation or B.B. writing and accordingly prepare for the presentation.
At the teaching stage , the teacher needs to do the following:
Teacher’s part (A):-
1 The whole class can be divided into four to five groups,
2 Each group is allotted a content that is already classified into four to five .
Student’s part : (A)
1. Each member of the group is asked to read the contain once and draw the main paints based on the content.
2. Then they are asked to discuss their points in a group and make final list of the main points based on the content allotted to them.
3. They are also asked to distribute the main points amongst them and ask to make sub-points and sub-sub points of the main points.
4. They are also asked to discuss these sub- points & sub -sub points amongst them.
5. Then they are expected to draw very short questions (of 3 to 4 marks) on each sub
sub points, short questions (of 5 to 6 marks) on sub points and long questions (of 10 to 12 marks) on the main point.
6. All these questions and the points related to that questions (i.e. answer keys) be made ready for discussion with other groups.
Teacher’s part (B)
1. Here the teacher is expected to confirm each group has completed its task and ready with points to discuss them other groups
2. After confirmation, he asks each group to present their content for other group members.
3. Presentation norms.
i). Every member of the group has to participate in the presentation.
ii) Presentation may begin with narrating the main part of the content and how it is divided into sub-parts and also narrating who is going to present what.
iii) Then group members has to make the notes as the discussion is going on.
Students part (B)
1.Each group of the student will present what they have studied collectively
2.The first group may begin its presentation with main point and its sub-points.
3.They will also discuss the questions based on points with answer keys.
4.Other group may raise questions for clarifying their doubts and for making notes.
5. Any member of that group may reply and clarify the query.
Teacher’s part ( C )
1.The teacher, after listening all the discussion, may add the information or make it clear any doubts remained to clarify.
2.The teacher observers that all the main points, sub-points and sub-sub points are discussed in the class.
3.He also observes that various questions ,with answer keys, were framed and presented in the class. He may add, modify, reframe the questions and ask to discuss in the class.
4.The teacher may present the whole content or part of it to clear the doubts with the help of overhead protector or through power-point.
5.He may ask the students to exchange their points, questions and key answers amongst them.
Following the above procedure, the Action Research was conducted to find out its advantages to the students and responses to the ensuing criticism against this method as follows.
Title of the Research
A Study of Usefulness of Collaborative Learning Method in facilitating the Learners in Distance Mode of Education.
Scope of the research:
1.The scope of the research extended to all the upper level classes just as B.Ed , M.Ed, M.Phill. etc. and also lower level classes just as Vth to XII th standard.
2.The research is concerned with classroom situation, may be of face to face or of virtual classroom.
3.Research may be concerned to any subject and any sort of content.
4.It incorporates teaching as well as counseling and facilitating.
5.The scope of this research extended to general education and also to distance education.
Limitation of the Research.:-
1. This research is limited only to M.Ed. classes conducted at the time of contact sessions of YCM Open University run on distance mode.
2. It is also limited to face to face classroom teaching situation.
3. This research is limited to the subjects i.e. Language Education and Measurement and Evaluation , subjects prescribed for M.Ed
4. It is concerned only to counseling in the face to face mode.
5. It is limited to the classes conducted in the contact sessions of distance education mode.
Delimitation of the Research:
The researcher was not able to make two groups to compare them to test the effect of the method as he had to involve all the students in the class for experiment.
Significance of the Research:
The research gives the direction to the teachers how to develop a design for planning their lesson plan for collaborative learning.
The research also provides confidence to the teachers about the implementing the plan .
The research also throws light on the self study skills on one part and collaborative study on the other part.
The research focuses on analyze the content into sub points and sub- sub points which helps the students to grasp it well.
The research helps to focus on the questions that will be asked in the examination.
The research gives direction to the teachers when they find the students are present without doing homework given to them pertaining to the concerned content
The research guides the teachers when and how and for whom this method be used.
Objective of the Action Research:
1.To develop a design of plan for collaborative learning as a classroom teaching method.
2.Implement the plan as per the design.
3.To test its effectiveness and suggest the way to use it.
4, To find out its advantages of this method .
5.To find out the responses to the ensuing criticism on the Method.
6.To find out the role of the teacher in this method.
- Contact sessions are very useful to the students in the distance education and they expect more from the counselors pertaining to their examinations.
- Students from Distance education fail to read before attending the contact sessions.
1.Collaborative Learning method is very useful to the students of Distance education.
2. This method fulfils expectations of the students in Distance mode pertaining to their examination.
3. Students get good marks in the examinations.
Independent Variable :- Design of CLCTM.
Dependent Variable :- Marks obtained in the examination.
Research Design :-
Research Method :-
The researcher used ‘Action Research ‘ for the research in hand.
It is one group post test experiment.
Tools used for the Research :-
- Five point Linkert’s response scale was used as a tool to get responses of the students involved in this research.
- Field study was made for studying the marks obtained of the participative students for each subject.
All the 37 students of Language Education, and 48 students of ‘Measurement & Evaluation’ subjects prescribed for M. Ed. Programme of YCM open University, were chosen for the experiment.
- The Researcher had developed the design for using collaborative learning classroom teaching method.
- He introduced this method to the concerned students and seeking their co operation, he started implementing it since first contact sessions. (There are three contact sessions for them.)
- This method was used for both the subjects i.e. for Language Education, and for ‘Measurement & Evaluation’ of M.Ed. Programme.
- He developed the questionnaire based on Linkert’s five-point scale. And distributed to the concerned students to get their responses pertaining to the method they had involved in.
- The responses were analyzed and drew conclusions.
- Then he studied the marks of the participative students obtained in the examination.
- Findings were drawn , then , based on the analysis.
Advantages of the Method:
Learning takes place with the collaboration of every student through CLM. This statement was proved with 77.88% of responses of the target group.
CLM. develops the self study skills on one part and collaborative study on the other part. . This statement was proved with 74.69% of responses of the target group.
CLM focuses on analyze the content into sub points and sub- sub points which help s the students to grasp it well. . This statement was proved with 75.68% of responses of the target group.
CLM helps to focus on the questions that will be asked in the examination. This statement was proved with 71.60% of responses of the target group.
CLM motivates the learners to learn their content . This statement was proved with 72% of responses of the target group.
CLM gives emphasize on learning . This statement was proved with 69.89% of responses of the target group.
CLM gives the opportunity for collaborative learning collectively gaining for all.. This statement was proved with 68.24% of responses of the target group.
CLM facilitate more learning. This statement was proved with 72.30% of responses of the target group.
CLM creates some sort of competition where every student try to compete with the other students in drawing out points and framing questions. . This statement was proved with 75.68% of responses of the target group.
Every group in CLM study thoroughly the content that is allotted to them. This statement was proved with 69.59% of responses of the target group.
CLM will be very useful if one unit is taken for study instead of taking all the units at a time. This statement was proved with 72.97 % of responses of the target group.
CLCTM will be very useful when the students are present without doing homework given to them pertaining to the concerned content. This statement was proved with 72.97 % of responses of the target group.
CLM will be very useful especially to the upper classes. This statement was proved with 77.70% of responses of the target group.
CLM will be very useful when the books are written on the basis on self-Instructional mode This statement was proved with 70.95% of responses of the target group.
CLM will be very useful method for counseling in the distance education This statement was proved with 70.95% of responses of the target group.
The education is ‘Teacher doesn’t teach, but student learns’ CLM adopts this principle in practical . This statement was proved with 75.68% of responses of the target group.
The overall feedback about CLM was 61.76 %. Therefore this method is proved the suitable method for the distance education people especially to the upper classes.
Responses to the Ensuing Criticism:
CLM may be criticized as clever teacher may conduct the class without any preparation. This statement was not proved because only 27.03 % of responses of the target group were in favor of the statement.
CLM may be criticized as students will be more cautious about the questions they be asked at the time of presentation. This statement was not proved because only 29.73 % of responses of the target group were in favor of the statement.
CLM may also be criticized as other groups will not be more cautious towards other presentations. This statement was not proved because only 29.05 % of responses of the target group were in favor of the statement.
It will be obstacle for the students to be attentive towards other presentations if they are engaged in having the notes. This statement was proved with 62.84 % of responses of the target group.
The Role of the Teacher :
Fifty five point zero four percent (55.04%) of the target group responded that teachers are expected to read the content thoroughly as a part of lesson plan preparation.
Sixty seven point fifty seven percentage (67.57 %) of the target group responded that teachers are expected to divide the content with precaution.
Fifty six point seventy six (56.76%) of the target group responded that teachers are expected to draw questions on each unit with key words.
Sixty two point sixty eight percentage (62.68 %.) of the target group responded that teachers speak less in the class.
Sixty five point thirty five percentage (65.35 %.) of the target group responded that the role of a teacher in this method is secondary one.
- CLM is very useful to the students from Distance education.
- CLM fulfils the expectations of the students in Distance mode pertaining to the examination.
- Everyone gains his learning out of CLM and gets good marks in the examinations.
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