16Juin
By: admin On: juin 16, 2017 In: Travel agency & Tour Comments: 0

        CollaborativeLearning Method                                                                                                                                                                      

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Background of the Research. 

               The role of the teacher is changing when one prefers counseling rather than teaching and also in facilitating rather than counseling.  In  conventional education set up , teachers teach whereas in distance  education  set up  they counsel. But the learners from this set up are expected to read the content before attending the counseling sessions and most of the time it was found that they attended the sessions without any preparation and  expected more and more from the counselors.  If the students have no doubts , counselors will not success in counseling. It requires to make the learners  learn and construct the knowledge. Therefore  facilitating replaces the  counseling where all the learners  involve and  gain constructive knowledge.  

 The best teacher is he who teaches his students how to learn.  It requires him to choose the best Learning method.  Lecture method and many other methods are teacher centered  and give emphasize on teaching rather than learning. Co-Operative learning method may be considered   student centered method where students seek co-operation from each other for  their learning. Co-operative learning teaching method gives the idea for the students how to seek co-operation from each other. Teacher may suggest the use of phone, mobile, email etc. for seeking co-operation.  There is something lacking and needs to get it  with the help of others. Moreover there may not be a gain to everyone as is found in Collaborative Learning Method. (CLM) 

CLM is a  student  centered method where everyone in the class play their role as defined and learn collaboratively gaining  for each one. This method is completely new one  that is used to teach in the classroom especially in a face to face situation and for higher classes. But whether this method is useful in facilitating the learners in distance mode is needed to find out.

 CLM : A Concept.

 Way of doing something is called a method. It is a system and it has orderliness. ‘CLM‘  is the teaching and counseling method where the teacher or counselor plans the constructive learning designs for the students and where the students play their role to implement the plan  accordingly. Students play their role as if they are in partnership. The gain what they achieve is the gain for all. All  are benefited from this method. 

It is different from the collaborative project-based learning as used by Kramer,Barry,Walker, Andrew, Brill  Jennifer ( Oct. 2007 ) while reviewing the under utilization of information and communication  technology assisted collaborative project- based learning among international educators : a Delphi study. The study explores the barriers associated with teachers implementing information and communication- technology- assisted collaborative project-based learning (ICT  PBL ) as a classroom teaching  method. But Collaborative Learning  ( CSCL ) is not the study based on any project or on ICT. 

The study of  Prinsen F.R.; Volman, M.L.L./ Terwel, J. (2007 ) was not also fall in Collaborative Classroom Teaching Method that  is under study as they used computer-supported collaborative learning ( CSCL ) to find out gender-related differences. 

  While reviewing the project fun work Havice, Michael J. Malin Shelly Schweizer, Heidi, Frenn, Marilyn ( Jul/Aug. 2007 ) mentioned that students from three disciplines designed, developed and implemented exercise and nutrition interventions online modules and videos to benefit low income middle school students engaged through collaboration. But Collaborative Learning classroom Teaching method is different from this research. 

Carron, Thibault, Mart Jean-Charles, Herand, Jean-Mathias, ( Sept. 2008 ) propose a learning environment based on a graphical representation of a course while teaching with game based learning management systems. But it is different than Collaborative Learning Classroom Teaching Method. 

Eric Zhi- Feng Liu, ( Nov. 2007 ) attempts to utilize a network to establish a personal and group-based learning portfolia system characterized  by co-operative learning which is also different from collaborative learning class-room Teaching method. 

Taylor, Maurice, Abasi, Ali, Pinsent-Johnson, Christine, Evans, Karen investigated how Canadian Adult students collaborative learn with peers in both formal and non.-formal adult  literacy programs. But it was not the Classroom Teaching method. 

Louisa Remedios, David Clarke , Lesleyanne Hawthorue (2008) had  made the conclusion that students choice to be silent doesn’t mean that lack of learning on his part. 

J. Feller, A. Hirvensalo, R. Smeds ( June 2005 ) in Inter partner process learning in collaborative R & D had studied how and what partner companies in an R & D collaboration relationship can jointly learn, to improve their R & D processes. But it was not the classroom teaching method. 

Pater F. Cuthbert ( April 2005) had studied the student learning processes. Learning styles/ learning approaches and concluded that investigation of students’ Learning Styles/ Approaches to Learning are probably of more benefit to the teacher than to the individual student. But collaborative learning classroom teaching method is the more benefited to the students. 

Brenda Scott.Ladd, Christopher C.A. ( 2008 ) investigated the contribution of behavior of a student for team-building teaching for managing the conflict and team relations. They made action research to teach students to manage team learning and improve team work satisfaction. Therefore this was not like the CLCTM as  discussed below. 

Characteristics of CLM.   

1. Teacher creates situation for learning . He designs a plan  of a teaching.

2.  Students learn in a  group .

3. Tasks are performed  in a group by the Students as the instructions  are given by the teacher.

4.The provision is made  to exhibit the information  collected  by  one group to other  groups.

5.By this method ,  the studentsare motivated  to raise the queries , if any, and   are clarified immediately.

6.This teaching method is learner centered method.

7.Students learn the content with collaboration.

8.Students work as if they are in partnership.

9.Teachers role is to assist the students to solve the difficulties, clarify the doubts and  make the explanations wherever necessary.

10.It is a method of working together to achieve learning tasks collectively.

11.Student learn themselves.

  1. Students receive gain out of this teaching.
  2.  The gain they achieve is the gain for all.
  3.  Teacher speaks very less in the class.
  4. Importance is given ‘learning’ instead of ‘teaching’.

 Procedure of CLM:  

Role of the teachers: 

The teacher has to prepare himself well verse  of the content going to be taught in the class. Therefore, he needs to do the following,

 Preparation stage.

1.Read the content.

2.Analyse the content.

3.Classify the content into four to five and  name the classification..

4. Then he is required to make sub classifications of each classification  into four to five and name the sub classifications.

5.Then he is expected to form   10 to 15  questions on each sub classification. These questions are of 3 marks or of 5 marks.

6.Then he is expected to write answer keys to each question.

7.He is also expected to frame long form questions that of ten marks, of  fifteen marks, and of twenty marks. These questions are the combination of  already framed short type questions.

8.He is expected to write answer keys to each long-form of question or combination of answer of short answer questions.

9.He is also expected to draw a new concepts to the students and prepare to explain them by using various methods like demonstration /  explanation and so on.

10 He is to decide whether to use overhead projector or to use power point presentation or B.B. writing  and accordingly prepare for the presentation. 

Teaching Stage.. 

At the teaching stage , the teacher needs to do the following:

 Teacher’s part (A):-

 1         The whole class can be divided into four to five groups,

2         Each group is allotted a content that is already classified into four to five .

 Student’s part : (A)

 1. Each member of the group is asked to read the contain once and draw the main paints based on the content.

2. Then they are asked to discuss their points in a group and make final list of the main points based on the content allotted to them.

3. They are also asked to distribute the main points amongst them and ask to make sub-points and sub-sub points of the main points.

4. They are also asked to discuss these sub- points & sub -sub points amongst them.

5. Then they are expected to draw very short questions (of 3 to 4 marks) on each  sub

sub points, short questions (of 5 to 6 marks) on sub points  and long questions  (of 10 to 12 marks) on the main point.

6.       All these questions and the points related to that questions (i.e.  answer keys) be made ready for discussion with other groups.

Teacher’s part (B)

 1.        Here the teacher is expected to confirm each group has completed its task and ready with points to discuss them other groups

2.        After confirmation, he asks each group to present their content for other group members.

3.        Presentation norms.

i). Every member of the group has to participate in the presentation.

ii) Presentation may begin with narrating the main part of the  content and how it  is divided into sub-parts and also narrating who is going to present what.

iii) Then group members has to make the notes as the discussion is going on.

 Students part (B)

 1.Each group of the student  will present what they have studied collectively

2.The first group may begin its presentation with main point and its sub-points.

3.They will also discuss the questions based on points with answer keys.

4.Other group  may raise questions  for clarifying their  doubts and for  making notes.

5. Any member of that group may reply and clarify the query. 

 Teacher’s part ( C )

 1.The teacher, after listening all the discussion, may add the information or make it clear any doubts remained to clarify.

2.The teacher  observers  that all the main points, sub-points and sub-sub points are discussed in the class.

3.He also  observes  that various questions ,with answer keys,  were framed and presented in the class. He may add, modify, reframe the questions and ask to discuss in the class.

 4.The teacher may present the whole content or part of it  to clear the doubts with the help of overhead protector or  through power-point.

 5.He may ask the students to exchange their points, questions and key answers amongst them.

 Following  the above procedure, the   Action Research was  conducted  to find out its advantages  to the students and  responses  to the ensuing criticism against  this method as follows. 

 Title of the Research 

             A Study of Usefulness of Collaborative Learning  Method  in facilitating  the Learners in Distance Mode of Education.  

 Scope of the research:

 1.The scope of the research extended to all the upper level classes  just as B.Ed , M.Ed, M.Phill. etc. and also lower level classes just as Vth to XII th standard.

 2.The research is concerned with classroom situation, may be of  face to face or  of virtual classroom.

 3.Research may be concerned to any subject and any sort of content.

 4.It incorporates teaching as well as counseling and facilitating.

 5.The scope of this research extended to general education and also to distance education. 

   Limitation of the Research.:-

1. This research is limited only to M.Ed.  classes conducted at the time of contact  sessions of  YCM Open University run on distance mode.

2. It is also limited to face to face classroom teaching situation.

3. This  research is limited to the subjects i.e.  Language Education and Measurement  and Evaluation  , subjects prescribed for  M.Ed

4. It is concerned only  to counseling in the face to face mode.

5. It is limited to the classes conducted in the contact sessions of distance  education mode. 

        Delimitation of the Research:

 The researcher was not able to make two groups to compare   them to test the effect of the method as he had to involve all the students in the class for experiment.

 Significance of the Research:

 The research gives the direction to the teachers   how to develop a design for planning  their lesson plan  for collaborative learning.

 The research also provides confidence to the teachers  about  the  implementing the plan .

 The research  also throws light on the self study skills on one part  and  collaborative study on the  other part.

 The research focuses on analyze the content into sub points and sub- sub points  which helps  the students to grasp it well.

 The research  helps to focus on the questions that will be asked in the examination.

 The research gives direction to the teachers   when   they find  the students are present  without doing homework  given to them pertaining to the concerned content

 The research  guides  the teachers when and how  and  for whom this method be used.

 Objective of the Action Research:

  1.To develop a design of plan for collaborative learning as a classroom teaching   method.

   2.Implement the plan as per the design.

   3.To test its effectiveness and suggest the way to use it.

   4, To find out its advantages of this method .

   5.To find out the responses  to the ensuing criticism on the  Method.

   6.To find out the role of the teacher in this method.

Assumptions:-

  1.  Contact sessions are very useful to the students in the distance education and they expect more  from the counselors  pertaining to their examinations.
  2. Students from Distance education fail to read before attending the contact sessions.

Hypothesis :-

1.Collaborative Learning  method is very useful to the students of  Distance education.

2. This method fulfils expectations of the students in Distance mode pertaining to  their examination.

3.  Students get good marks in the examinations.

Variables :-

Independent Variable :- Design of CLCTM.

Dependent Variable :- Marks obtained in the examination.

 Research Design :-

Research Method :-

  The researcher used ‘Action Research ‘ for the research in hand.

  It is one group post test experiment.

 Tools used for the Research :-

  1. Five point Linkert’s response  scale was  used as a tool to get responses of the students involved in this research.
  2. Field study  was made for studying the marks obtained of the participative students for each subject.

 

Sampling Design.

All the  37  students of Language Education,  and 48  students of ‘Measurement & Evaluation’ subjects prescribed for M. Ed. Programme of YCM open University,   were chosen for the experiment.

Research Procedure:

  1. The Researcher had  developed the design for using collaborative learning classroom teaching method.
  2. He introduced this method to the concerned students and seeking their co operation, he started implementing it since first contact sessions. (There are  three contact sessions for them.)
  3. This method was used for both the subjects i.e. for Language Education, and for ‘Measurement & Evaluation’ of M.Ed. Programme.
  4. He developed the questionnaire based on Linkert’s five-point scale. And distributed to the concerned students to get their responses pertaining to the method they had involved in.
  5. The responses were analyzed and drew conclusions.
  6. Then he studied the marks of the participative students obtained in the examination.
  7.  Findings were drawn , then , based on the analysis.

Conclusions:

Advantages  of the Method:

Learning takes place with the collaboration  of every student through CLM.  This  statement was proved  with  77.88% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM.    develops the self study skills on one part  and  collaborative study on the  other part. . This  statement was proved  with  74.69% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM focuses on analyze the content into sub points and sub- sub points which help s the students to grasp it well. . This  statement was proved  with  75.68% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM  helps to focus on the questions that will be asked in the examination. This  statement was proved  with  71.60% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM  motivates  the learners  to learn their content . This  statement was proved  with  72% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM  gives emphasize on learning . This  statement was proved  with  69.89% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM  gives the opportunity for collaborative learning collectively gaining for all.. This  statement was proved  with  68.24% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM  facilitate more learning. This  statement was proved  with  72.30% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM   creates some sort of competition  where every student try to compete with the other students in drawing out points and framing questions. . This  statement was proved  with  75.68% of  responses  of the target group.   

Every group in CLM  study thoroughly  the content that  is allotted to them. This  statement was proved  with  69.59% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM  will be very useful if one unit is taken  for study instead of taking  all the units  at a time. This  statement was proved  with  72.97 % of  responses  of the target group.  

CLCTM  will be very useful  when the students are present  without doing homework  given to them pertaining to the concerned content.   This  statement was proved  with  72.97 % of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM  will be very useful  especially to the upper classes. This  statement was proved  with  77.70% of  responses  of the target group. 

CLM  will be very useful when the books are written on the basis on self-Instructional mode This  statement was proved  with  70.95% of  responses  of the target group.  

CLM  will be very useful method for counseling in the distance education This  statement was proved  with  70.95% of  responses  of the target group.   

The education is ‘Teacher doesn’t teach, but student learns’ CLM  adopts this principle in practical . This  statement was proved  with  75.68% of  responses  of the target group.  

The overall feedback about CLM  was 61.76 %. Therefore this method is proved the suitable method for the distance education people especially to the upper classes.

Responses to the Ensuing Criticism:

CLM may be criticized as clever teacher may conduct the class without any preparation.  This  statement was  not proved  because only 27.03 % of  responses  of the target group were in favor of the statement.

CLM may be criticized as students will be more cautious about the       questions they be asked at the time of presentation. This  statement was  not proved  because only 29.73 % of  responses  of the target group were in favor of the statement.

CLM may also be criticized as other groups will not be more  cautious           towards other presentations. This  statement was  not proved  because only 29.05 % of  responses  of the target group were in favor of the statement.

      It will be obstacle for the students to be attentive towards other presentations if  they are engaged in having the notes. This  statement was proved  with  62.84 % of  responses  of the target group.  

     The Role of the Teacher :

   

Fifty five point zero four percent  (55.04%) of the  target group  responded that teachers are expected to read the content thoroughly as a part of lesson plan preparation. 

       Sixty seven point fifty seven percentage (67.57 %) of the  target group  responded that teachers are expected to divide the content with precaution.

 Fifty six point seventy six (56.76%) of the  target group  responded that teachers are expected to draw questions on each unit with key words.

.

       Sixty two point sixty eight percentage  (62.68 %.)  of the  target group  responded that teachers speak less in the class.

Sixty five  point thirty five percentage (65.35 %.) of the  target group  responded that the role of a teacher in this method is secondary one.

  Findings:-

    

  1. CLM is very useful to the students from Distance education.
  1. CLM fulfils the expectations of the students in Distance mode pertaining to the examination.
  1. Everyone gains his learning out of  CLM and gets good marks in the examinations.

References :

[1] Brenda Scott-Ladd (2008) Active Learning in Higher Education, Vol. 9, No. 3, 231-248

[2] Carron, Thibault ; Marty, Jean-Charles ; Heraud, Jean-Mathias. ( Sep. 2008 ) Simulation & Gaming, Vol. 39 Issue 3, p 353-378,

[3] Cuthbert Peter F. ( April 2005 ) Teaching in Higher Education, Volume 10,  Issue 2, pages 235-249

[4] Eric Zhi-Feng Liu,( Nov. 2007 ), British Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 38 Issue 6, p 1117-1121.

[5] Feller J. ,Hirvensalo A., Smeds R. (June-2005 ) Production Planning & Control, Volume 16, Pages 388-395

[6] Havice, Michael J.; Malin, Shelly; Schweizer, Heidi, Frenn, Marilyn.

    ( Jul/Aug.-2007 ) Nursing Education Perspectives, Vol. 28 Issue 4, pages 203-208.

[7] Johnson, David; Johnson, Roger; Smith, Kari. ( Mar 2007 ) , Educational       Psychology Review,  Vol. 19, Issue 1,  Pages 15-29,

[8]  Kassab, Salah; Al-Shboul, Qasim; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan; Hamdy, Hossam.

    ( Aug. 2006) Medical Teacher, Vol. 28, P 460-464,

[9] Kramer, Barry; Walker, Andrew; Brill, Jennifer ( Oct. 2007 ) , Educational   Technology Research & Development, Vol 55, Issue 5,   p 527-543,

[10] Lofstrom, Erika; Nevgi, Anne ( Mar. 2007) ,  British Journal of Educational technology ,Vol.38 , Issue 2,  p 312-324

[11] Louisa Remedios ( 2008 ) Active Learning in Higher Education, Vol.9, No. 3,

    p201-216

[12]  Morine-Dershimer, G. (1979 ). Teacher Plans and classroom reality; The South Bay study; Part 4 (Research Series No. 60 ). East Lansing; Michigan State University Institute for Research on Teaching.

[13]  Prinsen, F. R.; Volman, M.L.L ; Terwel, J. ( Oct. 2007 ) Journal of Computer assisted Learning , Vol. 23, Issue 5,  p 393-409

[14] Sanders, Norris, (1966 ) Classroom questions : What hinds ? New York : Harper & Row.

[15]  Schmuck, Richard. & Schmuck, Pat. ( 1988 ) Group Processes in the Classroom. Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown.

[16] Slavin , R.E. (!980)Cooperative Learning Review of educational Research,50,317-343.

[17] Staples, Megan, ( 2007 ) Cognition & Instruction, Vol. 25 , Issue 2/3,  p 161-217,

[18] Taylor, Maurice; Abasi, Ali; Pinsent-Johnson, Christine; Evans, Karen   ( Spring 2007 ),   Adult Basic education & Literacy Journal, Vol. 1, Issue 1,  , p 4-11.

[19] Visschers-Pleijers, astrid J.S.F. and others ( Feb. 2006 ) Medical Education, Vol. 40,  Issue 2, p 129-137

[20]  Zahorik, J. (1975 ). Teacher’s Planning Models. Educational Leadership. P.134-139.  



Source by Dr.S.S.Chaugule

Trackback URL: https://voklee.com/collaborative-learning-method/trackback/

Leave reply:

Votre adresse de messagerie ne sera pas publiée. Les champs obligatoires sont indiqués avec *